2. This survey is the only source of national level-data on both commercial building characteristics and energy consumption. The relative risk for frequent headaches was reported to be 1.5. 3-32, 3-446, 3-500]. The most ETS exposed nonsmokers were those with 10 or more hours per day of work (especially at plants/factories), more than 2 hours per day of restaurant time, and more than 1 hour per day of bar or nightclub time. With myCHP, you can request appointments, review test results, and more. 4-197] have also shown that the rate of tumors among mice exposed to the gas phase was greater than animals exposed to the whole smoke. 3-17, 3-32, 3-38, 3-61B, 3-188, 3-440A, 3-446, 3-500, 4-41, 4-144, 4-214]. Preferably, the plan should contain the equipment maintenance manuals issued upon completion of facility construction. Following an open procedure, your child will be given a strong pain medication prescribed by your surgeon. OSHA is not aware of any published risk assessments for overall exposure to indoor air pollutants. Usually, it is extremely difficult to isolate the role of occupational exposures in causing the disease, especially if workers are exposed to many toxic substances and the exposure is not necessarily limited to the workplace such as the case for ETS. SS is generated at a lower temperature (approximately 600deg.C between puffs versus 800 to 900deg.C for MS during puffs) and at a higher pH (6.7-7.5 versus 6.0-6.7) than MS. ], the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) NEPA regulations [40 CFR Part 1500], and OSHA's DOL NEPA Procedures [29 CFR Part 11]. Short-term mutagenicity tests have gained widespread acceptance as an initial step in the identification of potential carcinogens. Results of population based surveys show that 88 percent of nonsmokers are aware of the negative health consequences of ETS. For example, a young, otherwise healthy individual may be able to tolerate short-term ETS exposure without apparent difficulty, although asymptomatic arterial wall injury may occur which can contribute to cardiac injury in the future. The incidence rate of disease (I(u)) among the unexposed workers is estimated using the relationship: where: Research in Britain [Ex. 4-282] has complied a summary of 16 case-histories of SBS in the victims' own words. Paragraph (c)(3) proposes to require the employer to establish written plans for compliance. Therefore, since measurements of nicotine in the air correlate better than measurements of RSP to mutagenicity of ETS, and there is a positive correlation between short-term mutagenicity tests and carcinogenicity, the use of nicotine as an exposure marker for the carcinogenic effects of ETS appears to be justified. The extent to which outside air ventilation is effective in diluting indoor contaminants depends on how well outside air is mixed with indoor air and is reflected by ventilation efficiency. Employers shall assure compliance with this section by implementing at least the following actions: (1) Maintain and operate the HVAC system to assure that it operates up to original design specifications and continues to provide at least the minimum outside air ventilation rate, based on actual occupancy, required by the building code, mechanical code, or ventilation code applicable at the time the facility was constructed, renovated, or remodeled, whichever is most recent; (2) Conduct building systems inspections and maintenance in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section; (3) Assure that the HVAC system is operating during all work shifts, except during emergency HVAC repairs and during scheduled HVAC maintenance; (4) Implement the use of general or local exhaust ventilation where housekeeping and maintenance activities involve use of equipment or products that could reasonably be expected to result in hazardous chemical or particulate exposures to employees working in other areas of the building or facility; (5) Maintain relative humidity below 60% in buildings with mechanical cooling systems; (6) The employer shall monitor carbon dioxide levels when routine maintenance under paragraph (d)(1) of this section is done. 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